This short tutorial guides you through the process of creating an application called ColorSwitcher. You will build a simple program that enables you to switch the color of a panel from light gray to medium gray to black.
During the process of creating ColorSwitcher, you will learn how to:
This tutorial takes less than an hour to complete.
In the IDE, all Java development takes place within projects. An IDE project is a group of Java source files plus its associated meta data, including project-specific properties files, an Ant build script that controls the build and run settings, and a project.xml file that maps Ant targets to IDE commands.
Creating a Project
First we need to create the ColorSwitcher Java application, but to do this we need to create a new project within which to store sources and other project files. While Java applications are often comprised of several IDE projects, for the purposes of this tutorial we will build a simple application which is stored entirely in a single project.
To create a new ColorSwitcher application project:
- Choose File New Project (Ctrl+Shift+N). Alternately, you can click the New Project icon in the IDE toolbar.
- In the Categories pane, select the General folder. In the Projects pane, choose Java Application and click Next.
- Enter ColorSwitcher in the Project Name field and specify the project location.
- Ensure the Set as Main Project checkbox is selected and deselect Create Main Class if it is selected.
- Click Finish.
The IDE creates the ColorSwitcher folder on your system in the designated location. This folder contains all the project's associated files, including its Ant script, folders for storing sources and tests, as well as a folder for project-specific metadata. You can view this structure using the Files window.
Creating a Container
In order to proceed with developing our application, we need to create a Java container within which we will place the other required GUI components. After creating the new application, you may have noticed that the Source Packages folder in the Projects window contains an empty <default package> node. Now we'll create a container using the JFrame component and place the container in a new package.
To create a JFrame container:
- In the Projects window, right-click the ColorSwitcher node and choose New JFrame Form.
- Enter ColorSwitch as the Class Name.
- Enter my.colorswitcher.pkg as the Package.
- Click Finish.
The IDE creates the ColorSwitch form and the ColorSwitch class within the ColorSwitch.java application. The my.colorswitcher.pkg package replaces the <default package> and the ColorSwitcher form opens in the Editor window in Design view.
Defining the Project's Main Class
Before proceding any further, we need to let the IDE know which class is the Main Class so that build and run commands will work properly. You can set any class with a main method as the Main Class, but in this case we want to set the ColorSwitcher class we created in the previous step as the Main Class.
To set the Main Class
- In the Project window, right-click the ColorSwitcher project node and choose Properties.
- In the Categories pane of the Project Properties dialog, select the Run node.
- In the right pane, click the Browse button to the right of the Main Class field.
- In the Browse Main Classes dialogue that appears, select my.colorswitcher.pkg.ColorSwitch and click Select Main Class.
- Click OK to exit the Project Properties dialogue.
The IDE sets the main class parameter that it references when executing build and run commands.
Now that we've setup a new project for our application, let's take a minute to familiarize ourselves with the IDE Editor interface. Below is a screengrab of our ColorSwitcher application open in the IDE Editor's Design view.
When we added the JFrame container, the IDE opened the newly-created ColorSwitch form in an editor tab with a toolbar containing Source and Design toggle buttons. These buttons enable you to choose between viewing the ColorSwitch class's source code and a graphical view of its GUI components.
Initially, the ColorSwitch class opened in Design view and three windows automatically appeared along the IDE's edges. By default, the Inspector window is docked in the IDE's lower left corner and the Palette and Properties windows appear along its right edge, one above the other. Below are descriptions of each of the windows:
Clicking the Source button displays the application's Java source code with sections of code that are automatically generated by the IDE indicated by blue Guarded Blocks which are not editable in Source view. You can type only in the white areas of the Editor when in Source view. Clicking the Design button returns the IDE's Editor to the graphical view.
Now that you have created a form and have had a chance to familiarize yourself with the IDE's GUI tools, it's time to begin developing the nuts and bolts of our GUI application. In this step we'll change the JFrame's default layout, add the necessary GUI elements to the form using the IDE's Palette, and rearrange them using the GridBag Customizer.
Selecting a Layout Manager
Now that we've added a JFrame as our form's top-level container, the next step is to specify the Layout Manager we want to use to control the size and position of the components within the container. Each container type has a default layout manager. The default layout manager for the JFrame component is BorderLayout which divides the container into five sections (north, south, east, west, and center).
In this step, we'll switch to the GridBagLayout layout manager, which provides precise control over all aspects of the layout using a complex set of component properties called "constraints." The GridBagLayout places components in a grid of rows and columns in which grid cells can vary in size and components can span multiple rows, columns, or both.
To change layout managers:
- In the Editor, right-click the grey ColorSwitch form and choose Set Layout > GridBagLayout from the contextual menu to set the layout manager.
The ColorSwitch form is changed to GridBag layout and a GridBagLayout node is added to the JFrame's component hierarchy in the Inspector.
Adding a Button
Now that we've changed the layout manager, we need to add the button that will actually operate the ColorSwitcher application. Notice the IDE's "pick & drop" behavior when accomplishing this.
To add a button:
- In the Palette window, select the JButton component from the Swing category.
- Click anywhere on the ColorSwitch form in the Editor to add the JButton component to the form.
The JButton component appears in the Editor and its corresponding node is displayed in the Inspector window. The JButton component's code is added to the form's source file and is visible in the Editor's Source view.
Now we're going to edit the button so that it displays the correct text in the desired font style and size.
To rename the button and change its display font:
- In the Editor's Design view, right-click the JButton component and select Edit Text from the contextual menu. Alternately, you can simply click the button and push the spacebar to highlight the button's text.
- Enter Switch Color in the text field. Press Enter.
- With the JButton component still selected, scroll to the font property in the Properties window and click the ellipsis (...) button.
- In the editor dialog that appears, select Font Editor from the Select Mode combo box, choose Bold for font style and 14 for the font size.
- Click OK.
The JButton component label Switch Color appears in larger bold type.
The Editor displays the Switch Color button centered in its JFrame container, delineated by a dark purple border. The remainder of the form should be empty gray space with a light blue boundary indicating the edge of the JFrame itself.
Adding a Label
Since our application uses a label to display the colors the button will call, we need to add the label next. In this step we'll select the JLabel Swing component from the IDE's Palette and place it in our ColorSwitch form in the Editor's workspace. Again, notice the IDE's "pick & drop" behavior when accomplishing this.
To add a label component:
- In the Palette window, select the JLabel component in the Swing category.
- Click anywhere on the ColorSwitch form in the Editor to add the JLabel component to the form.
A label with the text jLabel1 is displayed in the Editor and a node named jLabel1 [JLabel] is displayed and highlighted in the Inspector window's tree view. In addition, the JLabel component's properties are displayed in the Properties window and its source code is added to the form in the Editor's Source view.
Using the GridBag Customizer to Adjust the Layout
Unlike other Layouts, the GridBagLayout displays no properties in the Properties window when selected in the Inspector window. Instead, the IDE's GridBag Customizer enables you to visually adjust the placement and constraints of components using the GridBagLayout. It includes a property sheet for GridBag constraints, buttons for adjusting the constraints, and a rough depiction of the components' layout.
To adjust the form's layout using the GridBag Customizer:
- To open the GridBag Customizer, right-click the GridBagLayout node in the Inspector window and choose Customize.
- In the workspace area (the customizer's right pane), reposition the JButton by clicking its center and dragging it below the JLabel component. As you drag the button, a black and red grid indicates the positions available. Notice also the Grid X and Grid Y properties in the left pane change to reflect the component's new position.
- Select the JLabel component and adjust the JLabel's Fill constraint to Horizontal, so that the label completely fills the cell above the button. Then set its Internal Padding Y constraint to 33.
- Once the approximate layout of the components has been established, select both the JLabel and JButton by pressing Control while clicking the components.
- Set the Insets (left, right, top and bottom) for both components to 5 to increase the space between the components by clicking the Increase Inset buttons ("+") in the customizer's lower left corner. The GridBag Customizer displays the insets with light yellow margins around the components.
- Click Close to exit the GridBag Customizer.
The IDE updates the edited components to reflect their new positioning and other constraints. Although the Editor's Design view does not display a grid, it now contains a single column and two rows.
Though the GridBag Customizer is where you actually edit the form when using the GridBag layout, the Editor's Design view more closely reflects how the components will look at runtime. In addition, it is often helpful to sketch out the way you want your layout to look before using the GridBag Customizer.
Making the Final Adjustments to the Form
Now that we've arranged the two components in our form, we need to edit the label so that it will change color when activated by the Color Switcher button. We'll do this by removing the label's text and altering its opacity property so that it will only display the color when the button is clicked.
To edit the label's properties:
- In the Editor's Design view, select the JLabel component.
- In the Properties window, scroll to the text property, select the current jLabel1 name, and delete the text leaving the text field blank. Press Enter.
- Scroll down to Other Properties, select the checkbox for the opaque property, and press Enter again.
The jLabel1 text disappears from the component, however, its purple selection highlighting remains visible in the Editor's workspace. Note also that the jLabel is still selectable via its corresponding node in the Inspector.
Finally, we need to adjust our form's properties so that it will display in an appropriately sized window when we run the application.
To edit the form's properties:
- In the Editor's Design view, select the JFrame container in the Inspector window.
- In the Properties window, choose the Code button to display the Code Generation options.
- Set the Form Size Policy option to Generate Resize Code and ensure that the Generate Size Code option is set to True.
- Change the Form Size by clicking the property's ellipsis button. Enter 200 in the Width field and 150 in the Height field, then press Close.
Whenever you run the application, the form will be generated in a window with the new dimensions.
Now that you have created the necessary components and added them to our application's form, we need to establish the interactivity between them and the end user. There are several ways to do this, but for the purposes of this tutorial we'll focus on using the Editor's Source view to enter the code directly.
Setting Up the Button
The first thing we need to do is set up the button to switch color. In this step we'll add the method for the user input we want and the listener code that will watch for it.
To add the mouse event:
- Place focus in the Editor window (in Design view), if it's not already.
- Right-click the jButton1 component (the Switch Color button) and choose Events Mouse mouseClicked.
The focus switches to Source view containing the Java source code for the ColorSwitcher class. The IDE generates the listener code jButton1.addMouseListener and event method jButton1MouseClicked(). Notice that the cursor is placed on the line where we'll add the event handling code in the following step.
The guarded blocks of Java code automatically generated by the IDE have a light blue background and cannot be edited directly in the Source view. To make changes code within a guarded block, click the Design button to return to Design view.
Adding an Event Handler
Once the jButton1MouseClicked() method has been created, you can add custom code for handling this event when it occurs. The goal is that each click of the Switch Color button will change the color of the label.
To add event handler code:
- Locate the Navigator window in the lower left corner of the IDE, and select JButton1 from the list of your ColorSwitcher application's elements. The cursor appears at the beginning of the JButton1 variable declaration in the JButton1's blue guarded block.
- Move the cursor to the line below the variable declaration section (on or about line 80).
You can display line numbers in Editor's Source view by right-clicking in the left margin and choosing Show Line Numbers.
- Declare the following new variable:private java.awt.Color currentColor = java.awt.Color.lightGray;
- In the Navigator window, select jButton1MouseClicked, select the text //Add your handling code here: below the guarded block (on or about line 62), and type the following:if (currentColor == java.awt.Color.lightGray) currentColor = java.awt.Color.gray; else if (currentColor == java.awt.Color.gray) currentColor = java.awt.Color.black; else currentColor = java.awt.Color.lightGray; jLabel1.setBackground (currentColor);
Note that the last line is jLabel with the number one ("1") preceeding the period and not the letter "l".
- Save the file by choosing File Save (Ctrl + S).
The IDE stores your code and places an error icon to the left of any line where it finds a problem.
As you work you can preview the form by clicking the Test Form button in the Editor's Design view toolbar. The form opens in its own window, allowing you to test it prior to buliding and running.
Adding GUI Components with the Palette Manager
Before trying our application out we'll take a quick look at another of the IDE's useful tools, the Palette Manager, pictured below.
If you work with custom components, beans, or component libraries, you can add them to the IDE's Palette window using the Palette Manager. You can also use the Palette Manager to assist you in adding, removing, and organizing Palette window components such as Swing components, AWT components, Layouts, and beans. To launch the Palette Manager, choose Tools Palette Manager.
Now that you have successfully built the ColorSwitcher form, you can try your application to see the results.
Compiling and Running Your Program
Now that we've created the user interface and the connections between the components, you can compile and run your application.
To compile the program:
- Compile the entire project application by selecting the ColorSwitcher node in the Projects window and choosing Build Build Main Project (F11).
The Output window opens to display the progress and any errors that occur. If the build is successful, the "Finished building ColorSwitcher (jar) " message appears in the status bar at the bottom of the main window. Note that the "jar" mentioned in parentheses indicates that the IDE has also created a jar file containing your application's sources.
If there are problems with the build, error messages are displayed in the Output window. You can double-click an error message to jump to the line in the source code where the error occurred. Once the build is successful, you can run the application.
Alternately, you can skip the build step and simply run your program. The IDE will compile any classes that are out of date automatically before running the program.
To run the program:
- Run the ColorSwitcher application by choosing Run Run Main Project (F6).
Once again the Output window opens to display the IDE's progress. If there are execution errors, the IDE displays both the Output and Execution windows. If the run command is successful, the ColorSwitcher application is displayed and should appear similarly to the image below.
In the application window, click the Switch Color button to check that your application is working properly and the label above the button actually changes color. With each successive click of the button, the area above the button should change from light gray to medium gray to black.
When you are finished testing your application, exit the application by simply closing the window.
You have now completed the IDE's GUI Building tutorial. For more information on using NetBeans IDE, see: